Radioactive carbon dating calculations

K., the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.4ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1850s and 2000s, mostly during 1911-19-1998: * Sources of uncertainty in surface temperature data involve “very incomplete” temperature records in the earlier years,[58] “systematic changes in measurement methods,”[59] “calculation and reporting errors,”[60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] data adjustments that are performed when instruments are moved to different locations,[67] instrument precision,[68] instrument positioning,[69] and missing documentation/raw data.[70] [71] definitive assessment of uncertainties is impossible, because it is always possible that some unknown error has contaminated the data, and no quantitative allowance can be made for such unknowns.[72] * Oceans constitute about 71% of the Earth’s surface.[73] Changes in air temperature over the world’s oceans are typically based on measurements of water temperature at depths varying from less than 3 feet to more than 49 feet.[74] [75] This data is combined with changes in air temperature over land areas to produce global averages.[76] [77] contrasted water and air temperature changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean using three sources of measurements.

One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.

The sum of the masses of these fragments is less than the original mass.

As of July 2015, no similar study has been conducted on a global basis.[81] * From 1979–2014, the three temperate datasets posted above differed from one another by an annual average of 0.13ºF (0.07ºC).None of the critics listed below have published their denunciations in peer-reviewed scientific publications.Instead they are ‘lone-ranger’ opinions in un-reviewed venues such as Internet sites and seminars.However, certain work activities can give rise to significantly enhanced exposures that may need to be controlled by regulation.Material giving rise to these enhanced exposures has become known as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM).

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