If we knew the precise length of reign for every Egyptian king, chronology would be no problem.
However, we do not even know the number of kings for all periods, and there is also the possibility that reigns overlapped by coregency or in times of political disunity.
For instance, if we find a fossil bone below the strata 3 rock level shown above, we assume that the animal most likely lived at a time before that layer was formed.
The contrast might also be drawn between two 'dimensions', the historical, and the archaeological, corresponding roughly to the short-term and long-term history envisaged by Fernand Braudel.
The dating of remains is essential in archaeology, in order to place finds in correct relation to one another, and to understand what was present in the experience of any human being at a given time and place.
Inscribed objects sometimes bear an explicit date, or preserve the name of a dated individual. However, only a small number of objects are datable by inscriptions, and there are many specific problems with Egyptian chronology, so that even inscribed objects are rarely datable in absolute terms.
These processes result in All of these processes confuse the stratigraphic record.
In many cases, however, it is possible to reconstruct the original sequence of strata so that they can be used for relative dating.